**System Verilog operators**: is a hardware description language used in the development and verification of digital circuits and systems. Similar to other programming languages, it has a set of operators that allow designers to perform various operations on the data. System Verilog operators are classified into different categories based on their functionality. Understanding these operators is crucial for designing efficient and error-free digital circuits.

The basic System Verilog operators include arithmetic, relational, equality, logical, bitwise, and shift operators. These operators are used to perform basic mathematical and logical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and comparison, and logical operations like AND, OR, and NOT. Advanced System Verilog operators include reduction, concatenation, replication, and streaming operators. These operators are used to perform complex operations on large data sets, such as data compression, encryption, and decompression.

**Key Takeaways**

- System Verilog operators are used in the development and verification of digital circuits and systems.
- Basic System Verilog operators include arithmetic, relational, equality, logical, bitwise, and shift operators.
- Advanced System Verilog operators include reduction, concatenation, replication, and streaming operators.

**Basic System Verilog Operators**

In System Verilog, operators are essential building blocks for designing digital circuits. These operators allow us to perform various operations on digital data and manipulate it to achieve the desired output. In this section, we will discuss the three basic types of operators: Arithmetic, Relational, and Logical.

**Arithmetic Operators**

Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical operations on operands. The basic arithmetic operators in System Verilog are:

Operator | Description |

+ | Addition |

– | Subtraction |

* | Multiplication |

/ | Division |

% | Modulus |

For example, the expression a = b + c adds the values of b and c and stores the result in a.

**Relational Operators**

Relational operators are used to compare two operands. The result of a relational operator is either true or false. The relational operators in System Verilog are:

Operator | Description |

== | Equal to |

!= | Not equal to |

< | Less than |

<= | Less than or equal to |

> | Greater than |

>= | Greater than or equal to |

For example, the expression if (a == b) compares the values of a and b and executes the code inside the if statement if they are equal.

**Logical Operators**

Logical operators are used to perform logical operations on operands. The logical operators in System Verilog are:

Operator | Description |

&& | Logical AND |

|| | Logical OR |

! | Logical NOT |

For example, the expression if (a && b) checks if both a and b are true and executes the code inside the if statement if they are.

Understanding these basic operators is essential for designing digital circuits in System Verilog. By using these operators, we can perform various operations on digital data and manipulate it to achieve the desired output.

**Advanced System Verilog Operators**

In addition to the basic operators, System Verilog provides advanced operators to perform complex operations. These operators are an essential part of System Verilog and are widely used in the development of digital circuits. In this section, we will discuss two of the most important advanced operators: Bitwise Operators and Shift Operators.

**Bitwise Operators**

Bitwise operators are used to manipulate individual bits of a variable. System Verilog provides six bitwise operators: AND, OR, XOR, NAND, NOR, and XNOR. These operators can be used to perform various operations such as masking, setting, and clearing bits.

Operator | Description | Example |

& | Bitwise AND | a & b |

| | Bitwise OR | a | b |

^ | Bitwise XOR | a ^ b |

~& | Bitwise NAND | ~&a |

~| | Bitwise NOR | ~|a |

~^ | Bitwise XNOR | ~^a |

**Shift Operators**

Shift operators are used to shift the bits of a variable left or right. System Verilog provides four shift operators: left shift, right shift, arithmetic right shift, and logical right shift. These operators are used to perform various operations such as multiplication and division by powers of two.

Operator | Description | Example |

<< | Left Shift | a << b |

>> | Right Shift | a >> b |

>>> | Logical Right Shift | a >>> b |

>>$ | Arithmetic Right Shift | a >>$ b |

In summary, bitwise and shift operators are essential in System Verilog for manipulating individual bits and shifting bits left or right. By using these advanced operators, we can perform complex operations with ease and efficiency.

**Assignment Operators in System Verilog**

In System Verilog, we use assignment operators to assign values to variables. The most commonly used assignment operator is the **“=”** operator. We use this operator to assign a value to a variable. For example, if we want to assign the value of 5 to a variable named **“a”**, we would write **“a = 5;”**.

System Verilog also provides us with other assignment operators that we can use to perform certain operations on variables while assigning values to them. These operators are listed in the table below:

Operator | Description |

+= | Adds the value on the right-hand side to the value on the left-hand side and assigns the result to the left-hand side variable. |

-= | Subtracts the value on the right-hand side from the value on the left-hand side and assigns the result to the left-hand side variable. |

*= | Multiplies the value on the right-hand side with the value on the left-hand side and assigns the result to the left-hand side variable. |

/= | Divide the value on the left-hand side by the value on the right-hand side and assign the result to the left-hand side variable. |

%= | Calculates the modulus of the value on the left-hand side with the value on the right-hand side and assigns the result to the left-hand side variable. |

<<= | Shifts the bits of the left-hand side value to the left by the number of bits specified on the right-hand side and assigns the result to the left-hand side variable. |

>>= | Shifts the bits of the left-hand side value to the right by the number of bits specified on the right-hand side and assigns the result to the left-hand side variable. |

&= | Performs a bitwise AND operation between the left-hand side value and the right-hand side value and assigns the result to the left-hand side variable. |

^= | Performs a bitwise XOR operation between the left-hand side value and the right-hand side value and assigns the result to the left-hand side variable. |

|= | Performs a bitwise OR operation between the left-hand side value and the right-hand side value and assigns the result to the left-hand side variable. |

By using these assignment operators, we can perform operations on variables and assign the result to the same variable in a single statement. This makes our code more concise and easier to read.

**Conditional Operators in System Verilog**

In System Verilog, conditional operators are used to create conditional expressions. They are a shorthand way to write if/else statements. The conditional operator is also known as the ternary operator because it takes three operands. The syntax of the conditional operator is as follows:

<condition> ? <expression_if_true> : <expression_if_false> |

The conditional operator evaluates the condition first. If the condition is true, it evaluates the expression immediately after the question mark. If the condition is false, it evaluates the expression immediately after the colon.

One of the advantages of using the conditional operator is that it makes the code more concise and easier to read. It can also be used in assignments, which can help reduce the number of lines of code.

Another conditional operator in System Verilog is the implication operator. The implication operator is used to create logical implications. It takes two operands and returns a Boolean value. The syntax of the implication operator is as follows:

<condition> |-> <expression> |

The implication operator returns true if the condition is false or if both the condition and the expression are true. It returns false if the condition is true and the expression is false.

In summary, System Verilog provides two types of conditional operators: the conditional operator and the implication operator. These operators can help reduce the number of lines of code and make the code more concise and easier to read.

**Miscellaneous Operators in System Verilog**

In addition to the basic arithmetic, relational, and logical operators, System Verilog provides several miscellaneous operators that can be used in digital circuit design.

**Replication Operator**

The replication operator {} is used to replicate a single value or a set of values multiple times. The syntax for the replication operator is {N{value}}, where N is the number of times the value is replicated.

For example, {8{1’b0}} represents a vector of eight bits, all set to 0. This operator is useful when designing circuits that require a large number of identical components.

**Concatenation Operator**

The concatenation operator {} is used to concatenate two or more vectors into a single vector. The syntax for the concatenation operator is {vector1, vector2, …, vectorN}, where vector1 through vectorN are the vectors being concatenated.

For example, {a, b} represents a vector that is the concatenation of vectors a and b. This operator is useful when designing circuits that require combining multiple vectors into a single vector.

**Ternary Operator**

The ternary operator ?: is a conditional operator that is used to assign a value to a variable based on a condition. The syntax for the ternary operator is condition ? true_value : false_value, where condition is the condition being evaluated, true_value is the value assigned if the condition is true, and false_value is the value assigned if the condition is false.

For example, y = (x>0) ? 1 : 0 assigns the value 1 to y if x is greater than 0, and assigns the value 0 to y if x is less than or equal to 0. This operator is useful when designing circuits that require conditional assignments.

**Bit-select and Part-select Operators**

The bit-select operator [] and the part-select operator [start:end] are used to select a single bit or a range of bits from a vector, respectively. The syntax for the bit-select operator is vector[index], where vector is the vector being selected from and index is the index of the bit being selected. The syntax for the part-select operator is vector[start:end], where vector is the vector being selected from, start is the index of the starting bit, and end is the index of the ending bit.

For example, a[7:0] represents a vector that consists of the eight least significant bits of vector a. This operator is useful when designing circuits that require selecting specific bits or ranges of bits from a vector.

These operators, along with the basic operators, provide a powerful set of tools for designing digital circuits using System Verilog.